امروز: دوشنبه 2 مهر 1397
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بلوک کد اختصاصی

هندبوک طراحی فرآیندهای شیمیایی

هندبوک طراحی فرآیندهای شیمیاییدسته: صنایع
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هندبوک طراحی فرآیندهای شیمیایی

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Preface xiii

Acknowledgements xv

Nomenclature xvii

Chapter 1 The Nature of Chemical Process

Design and Integration 1

1.1 Chemical Products 1

1.2 Formulation of the Design Problem 3

1.3 Chemical Process Design and

Integration 4

1.4 The Hierarchy of Chemical Process

Design and Integration 5

1.5 Continuous and Batch Processes 9

1.6 New Design and Retrofit 10

1.7 Approaches to Chemical Process

Design and Integration 11

1.8 Process Control 13

1.9 The Nature of Chemical Process

Design and Integration – Summary 14

References 14

Chapter 2 Process Economics 17

2.1 The Role of Process Economics 17

2.2 Capital Cost for New Design 17

2.3 Capital Cost for Retrofit 23

2.4 Annualized Capital Cost 24

2.5 Operating Cost 25

2.6 Simple Economic Criteria 28

2.7 Project Cash Flow and Economic

Evaluation 29

2.8 Investment Criteria 30

2.9 Process Economics – Summary 31

2.10 Exercises 32

References 33

Chapter 3 Optimization 35

3.1 Objective Functions 35

3.2 Single-variable Optimization 37

3.3 Multivariable Optimization 38

3.4 Constrained Optimization 42

3.5 Linear Programming 43

3.6 Nonlinear Programming 45

3.7 Profile Optimization 46

3.8 Structural Optimization 48

3.9 Solution of Equations

using Optimization 52

3.10 The Search for Global

Optimality 53

3.11 Summary – Optimization 54

3.12 Exercises 54

References 56

Chapter 4 Thermodynamic Properties and

Phase Equilibrium 57

4.1 Equations of State 57

4.2 Phase Equilibrium for Single

Components 59

4.3 Fugacity and Phase Equilibrium 60

4.4 Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium 60

4.5 Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium Based on

Activity Coefficient Models 62

4.6 Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium Based on

Equations of State 64

4.7 Calculation of Vapor–Liquid

Equilibrium 64

4.8 Liquid–Liquid Equilibrium 70

4.9 Liquid–Liquid Equilibrium Activity

Coefficient Models 71

4.10 Calculation of Liquid–Liquid

Equilibrium 71

4.11 Calculation of Enthalpy 72

4.12 Calculation of Entropy 74

4.13 Phase Equilibrium and Thermodynamic

Properties – Summary 74

4.14 Exercises 74

References 76

Chapter 5 Choice of Reactor I – Reactor

Performance 77

5.1 Reaction Path 77

5.2 Types of Reaction Systems 78

5.3 Reactor Performance 81

5.4 Rate of Reaction 82

5.5 Idealized Reactor Models 83

5.6 Choice of Idealized Reactor Model 90

5.7 Choice of Reactor Performance 94

viii Contents

5.8 Choice of Reactor

Performance – Summary 94

5.9 Exercises 95

References 96

Chapter 6 Choice of Reactor II - Reactor

Conditions 97

6.1 Reaction Equilibrium 97

6.2 Reactor Temperature 100

6.3 Reactor Pressure 107

6.4 Reactor Phase 108

6.5 Reactor Concentration 109

6.6 Biochemical Reactions 114

6.7 Catalysts 114

6.8 Choice of Reactor

Conditions – Summary 117

6.9 Exercises 118

References 120

Chapter 7 Choice of Reactor III – Reactor

Configuration 121

7.1 Temperature Control 121

7.2 Catalyst Degradation 123

7.3 Gas–Liquid and Liquid–Liquid

Reactors 124

7.4 Reactor Configuration 127

7.5 Reactor Configuration for

Heterogeneous Solid-Catalyzed

Reactions 133

7.6 Reactor Configuration from

Optimization of a Superstructure 133

7.7 Choice of Reactor

Configuration – Summary 139

7.8 Exercises 139

References 140

Chapter 8 Choice of Separator for

Heterogeneous Mixtures 143

8.1 Homogeneous and Heterogeneous

Separation 143

8.2 Settling and Sedimentation 143

8.3 Inertial and Centrifugal Separation 147

8.4 Electrostatic Precipitation 149

8.5 Filtration 150

8.6 Scrubbing 151

8.7 Flotation 152

8.8 Drying 153

8.9 Separation of Heterogeneous

Mixtures – Summary 154

8.10 Exercises 154

References 155

Chapter 9 Choice of Separator for

Homogeneous Fluid Mixtures

I – Distillation 157

9.1 Single-Stage Separation 157

9.2 Distillation 157

9.3 Binary Distillation 160

9.4 Total and Minimum Reflux

Conditions for Multicomponent

Mixtures 163

9.5 Finite Reflux Conditions for

Multicomponent Mixtures 170

9.6 Choice of Operating Conditions 175

9.7 Limitations of Distillation 176

9.8 Separation of Homogeneous Fluid

Mixtures by Distillation – Summary 177

9.9 Exercises 178

References 179

Chapter 10 Choice of Separator for

Homogeneous Fluid Mixtures

II – Other Methods 181

10.1 Absorption and Stripping 181

10.2 Liquid–Liquid Extraction 184

10.3 Adsorption 189

10.4 Membranes 193

10.5 Crystallization 203

10.6 Evaporation 206

10.7 Separation of Homogeneous Fluid

Mixtures by Other

Methods – Summary 208

10.8 Exercises 209

References 209

Chapter 11 Distillation Sequencing 211

11.1 Distillation Sequencing Using

Simple Columns 211

11.2 Practical Constraints Restricting

Options 211

11.3 Choice of Sequence for Simple

Nonintegrated Distillation Columns 212

11.4 Distillation Sequencing Using

Columns With More Than Two

Products 217

11.5 Distillation Sequencing Using

Thermal Coupling 220

11.6 Retrofit of Distillation Sequences 224

11.7 Crude Oil Distillation 225

11.8 Distillation Sequencing Using

Optimization of a Superstructure 228

11.9 Distillation Sequencing – Summary 230

11.10 Exercises 231

References 232

Contents ix

Chapter 12 Distillation Sequencing for

Azeotropic Distillation 235

12.1 Azeotropic Systems 235

12.2 Change in Pressure 235

12.3 Representation of Azeotropic

Distillation 236

12.4 Distillation at Total Reflux

Conditions 238

12.5 Distillation at Minimum Reflux

Conditions 242

12.6 Distillation at Finite Reflux

Conditions 243

12.7 Distillation Sequencing Using an

Entrainer 246

12.8 Heterogeneous Azeotropic

Distillation 251

12.9 Entrainer Selection 253

12.10 Trade-offs in Azeotropic Distillation 255

12.11 Multicomponent Systems 255

12.12 Membrane Separation 255

12.13 Distillation Sequencing for

Azeotropic Distillation – Summary 256

12.14 Exercises 257

References 258

Chapter 13 Reaction, Separation and Recycle

Systems for Continuous Processes 259

13.1 The Function of Process Recycles 259

13.2 Recycles with Purges 264

13.3 Pumping and Compression 267

13.4 Simulation of Recycles 276

13.5 The Process Yield 280

13.6 Optimization of Reactor Conversion 281

13.7 Optimization of Processes Involving

a Purge 283

13.8 Hybrid Reaction and Separation 284

13.9 Feed, Product and Intermediate

Storage 286

13.10 Reaction, Separation and Recycle

Systems for Continuous

Processes – Summary 288

13.11 Exercises 289

References 290

Chapter 14 Reaction, Separation and Recycle

Systems for Batch Processes 291

14.1 Batch Processes 291

14.2 Batch Reactors 291

14.3 Batch Separation Processes 297

14.4 Gantt Charts 303

14.5 Production Schedules for Single

Products 304

14.6 Production Schedules for Multiple

Products 305

14.7 Equipment Cleaning and Material

Transfer 306

14.8 Synthesis of Reaction and

Separation Systems for Batch

Processes 307

14.9 Optimization of Batch Processes 311

14.10 Storage in Batch Processes 312

14.11 Reaction and Separation Systems for

Batch Processes – Summary 313

14.12 Exercises 313

References 315

Chapter 15 Heat Exchanger Networks

I – Heat Transfer Equipment 317

15.1 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients 317

15.2 Heat Transfer Coefficients and

Pressure Drops for Shell-and-Tube

Heat Exchangers 319

15.3 Temperature Differences in

Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers 324

15.4 Allocation of Fluids in

Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers 329

15.5 Extended Surface Tubes 332

15.6 Retrofit of Heat Exchangers 333

15.7 Condensers 337

15.8 Reboilers and Vaporizers 342

15.9 Other Types of Heat Exchange

Equipment 346

15.10 Fired Heaters 348

15.11 Heat Transfer

Equipment – Summary 354

15.12 Exercises 354

References 356

Chapter 16 Heat Exchanger Networks

II – Energy Targets 357

16.1 Composite Curves 357

16.2 The Heat Recovery Pinch 361

16.3 Threshold Problems 364

16.4 The Problem Table Algorithm 365

16.5 Nonglobal Minimum Temperature

Differences 370

16.6 Process Constraints 370

16.7 Utility Selection 372

16.8 Furnaces 374

16.9 Cogeneration (Combined Heat and

Power Generation) 376

16.10 Integration Of Heat Pumps 381

16.11 Heat Exchanger Network Energy

Targets – Summary 383

x Contents

16.12 Exercises 383

References 385

Chapter 17 Heat Exchanger Networks

III – Capital and Total Cost

Targets 387

17.1 Number of Heat Exchange Units 387

17.2 Heat Exchange Area Targets 388

17.3 Number-of-shells Target 392

17.4 Capital Cost Targets 393

17.5 Total Cost Targets 395

17.6 Heat Exchanger Network and

Utilities Capital and Total

Costs – Summary 395

17.7 Exercises 396

References 397

Chapter 18 Heat Exchanger Networks

IV – Network Design 399

18.1 The Pinch Design Method 399

18.2 Design for Threshold Problems 404

18.3 Stream Splitting 405

18.4 Design for Multiple Pinches 408

18.5 Remaining Problem Analysis 411

18.6 Network Optimization 413

18.7 The Superstructure Approach to

Heat Exchanger Network Design 416

18.8 Retrofit of Heat Exchanger

Networks 419

18.9 Addition of New Heat Transfer Area

in Retrofit 424

18.10 Heat Exchanger Network

Design – Summary 425

18.11 Exercises 425

References 428

Chapter 19 Heat Exchanger Networks

V – Stream Data 429

19.1 Process Changes for Heat

Integration 429

19.2 The Trade-Offs Between Process

Changes, Utility Selection, Energy

Cost and Capital Cost 429

19.3 Data Extraction 430

19.4 Heat Exchanger Network Stream

Data – Summary 437

19.5 Exercises 437

References 438

Chapter 20 Heat Integration of Reactors 439

20.1 The Heat Integration Characteristics

of Reactors 439

20.2 Appropriate Placement of Reactors 441

20.3 Use of the Grand Composite Curve

for Heat Integration of Reactors 442

20.4 Evolving Reactor Design to Improve

Heat Integration 443

20.5 Heat Integration of

Reactors – Summary 444

Reference 444

Chapter 21 Heat Integration of Distillation

Columns 445

21.1 The Heat Integration Characteristics

of Distillation 445

21.2 The Appropriate Placement of

Distillation 445

21.3 Use of the Grand Composite Curve

for Heat Integration of Distillation 446

21.4 Evolving the Design of Simple

Distillation Columns to Improve

Heat Integration 447

21.5 Heat Pumping in Distillation 449

21.6 Capital Cost Considerations 449

21.7 Heat Integration Characteristics of

Distillation Sequences 450

21.8 Heat-integrated Distillation

Sequences Based on the

Optimization of a Superstructure 454

21.9 Heat Integration of Distillation

Columns – Summary 455

21.10 Exercises 456

References 457

Chapter 22 Heat Integration of Evaporators

and Dryers 459

22.1 The Heat Integration Characteristics

of Evaporators 459

22.2 Appropriate Placement of

Evaporators 459

22.3 Evolving Evaporator Design to

Improve Heat Integration 459

22.4 The Heat Integration Characteristics

of Dryers 459

22.5 Evolving Dryer Design to Improve

Heat Integration 460

22.6 Heat Integration of Evaporators and

Dryers – Summary 461

Contents xi

22.7 Exercises 462

References 463

Chapter 23 Steam Systems and Cogeneration 465

23.1 Boiler Feedwater Treatment 466

23.2 Steam Boilers 468

23.3 Steam Turbines 471

23.4 Gas Turbines 477

23.5 Steam System Configuration 482

23.6 Steam and Power Balances 484

23.7 Site Composite Curves 487

23.8 Cogeneration Targets 490

23.9 Optimization of Steam Levels 493

23.10 Site Power-to-heat Ratio 496

23.11 Optimizing Steam Systems 498

23.12 Steam Costs 502

23.13 Choice of Driver 506

23.14 Steam Systems and

Cogeneration – Summary 507

23.15 Exercises 508

References 510

Chapter 24 Cooling and Refrigeration Systems 513

24.1 Cooling Systems 513

24.2 Recirculating Cooling Water

Systems 513

24.3 Targeting Minimum Cooling Water

Flowrate 516

24.4 Design of Cooling Water Networks 518

24.5 Retrofit of Cooling Water Systems 524

24.6 Refrigeration Cycles 526

24.7 Process Expanders 530

24.8 Choice of Refrigerant for

Compression Refrigeration 532

24.9 Targeting Refrigeration Power for

Compression Refrigeration 535

24.10 Heat Integration of Compression

Refrigeration Processes 539

24.11 Mixed Refrigerants for Compression

Refrigeration 542

24.12 Absorption Refrigeration 544

24.13 Indirect Refrigeration 546

24.14 Cooling Water and Refrigeration

Systems – Summary 546

24.15 Exercises 547

References 549

Chapter 25 Environmental Design for

Atmospheric Emissions 551

25.1 Atmospheric Pollution 551

25.2 Sources of Atmospheric Pollution 552

25.3 Control of Solid Particulate

Emissions to Atmosphere 553

25.4 Control of VOC Emissions to

Atmosphere 554

25.5 Control of Sulfur Emissions 565

25.6 Control of Oxides of Nitrogen

Emissions 569

25.7 Control of Combustion Emissions 573

25.8 Atmospheric Dispersion 574

25.9 Environmental Design for

Atmospheric Emissions – Summary 575

25.10 Exercises 576

References 579

Chapter 26 Water System Design 581

26.1 Aqueous Contamination 583

26.2 Primary Treatment Processes 585

26.3 Biological Treatment Processes 588

26.4 Tertiary Treatment Processes 591

26.5 Water Use 593

26.6 Targeting Maximum Water Reuse

for Single Contaminants 594

26.7 Design for Maximum Water Reuse

for Single Contaminants 596

26.8 Targeting and Design for Maximum

Water Reuse Based on Optimization

of a Superstructure 604

26.9 Process Changes for Reduced Water

Consumption 606

26.10 Targeting Minimum Wastewater

Treatment Flowrate for Single

Contaminants 607

26.11 Design for Minimum Wastewater

Treatment Flowrate for Single

Contaminants 610

26.12 Regeneration of Wastewater 613

26.13 Targeting and Design for Effluent

Treatment and Regeneration Based

on Optimization of a Superstructure 616

26.14 Data Extraction 617

26.15 Water System Design – Summary 620

26.16 Exercises 620

References 623

Chapter 27 Inherent Safety 625

27.1 Fire 625

27.2 Explosion 626

27.3 Toxic Release 627

27.4 Intensification of Hazardous

Materials 628

xii Contents

27.5 Attenuation of Hazardous Materials 630

27.6 Quantitative Measures of Inherent

Safety 631

27.7 Inherent Safety – Summary 632

27.8 Exercises 632

References 633

Chapter 28 Clean Process Technology 635

28.1 Sources of Waste from Chemical

Production 635

28.2 Clean Process Technology for

Chemical Reactors 636

28.3 Clean Process Technology for

Separation and Recycle Systems 637

28.4 Clean Process Technology for

Process Operations 642

28.5 Clean Process Technology for

Utility Systems 643

28.6 Trading off Clean Process

Technology Options 644

28.7 Life Cycle Analysis 645

28.8 Clean Process Technology –

Summary 646

28.9 Exercises 646

References 647

Chapter 29 Overall Strategy for Chemical

Process Design and Integration 649

29.1 Objectives 649

29.2 The Hierarchy 649

29.3 The Final Design 651

Appendix A Annualization of Capital Cost 653

Appendix B Gas Compression 655

B.1 Reciprocating Compressors 655

B.2 Centrifugal Compressors 658

B.3 Staged Compression 659

Appendix C Heat Transfer Coefficients and

Pressure Drop in Shell-and-tube

Heat Exchangers 661

C.1 Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer

Correlations for the Tube-Side 661

C.2 Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer

Correlations for the Shell-Side 662

References 666

Appendix D The Maximum Thermal

Effectiveness for 1–2

Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers 667

Appendix E Expression for the Minimum

Number of 1–2 Shell-and-tube

Heat Exchangers for a Given Unit 669

Appendix F Algorithm for the Heat Exchanger

Network Area Target 671

Appendix G Algorithm for the Heat Exchanger

Network Number of Shells Target 673

G.1 Minimum Area Target for Networks

of 1–2 Shells 674

References 677

Appendix H Algorithm for Heat Exchanger

Network Capital Cost Targets 677

Index 679

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برچسب ها : هندبوک طراحی فرآیندهای شیمیایی , Preface xiii , Acknowledgements xv , Nomenclature xvii , Chapter 1 The Nature of Chemical Process , Design and Integration , Chemical Products 1 , Formulation of the Design Problem 3 , Chemical Process Design , Integration , The Hierarchy of Chemical Process , Design and Integration

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